Amla (Phyllanthus emblica)

Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica)

Latin Name Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus emblica
Sanskrit Name Amrtaphala, Amalaka, Dhatriphala
English Name Emblic Myrobalan, Indian Gooseberry
Common Name Amla, Dhatri, Ambala, Aonla, Nellikayi, Bela nelli, pottadenollikayi, Amli, Avalkathi, Ainla, Aula, Amlaj

 

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:1
Rasa Madhura, Amla, Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna Laghu, Ruksa
Virya Sita
Vipaka Madhura
Karma Caksusya, Rasayana, Tridosajit, Vrsya

Phytochemistry:

It contains protein, fat carbohydrates fibre, minerals, and vitamin, Phyllemblin, Gallic acid, Tannins, Pectin, essential oil with linolenic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic, myristic acids, and proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes etc. The fruit gave cytokinine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside and zeatin nucleotide; suspension culture gave phyllembin.

The major amino acids present are; alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, and proline.

Vitamin: Vitamin-C, Vitamin-K, Vitamin-A, Riboflavin (Vitamin-B2), Niacin, Nicotinic acid (Vitamin-B2), Vitamin-B12.

Mineral: calcium, magnesium, potassium, silica, sodium, sulfur, zinc, phosphorus, iron, chromium and copper.

The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration threefold and vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) concentration 160-fold than those of apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apple.

Pharmacological Actions:

It is potent antioxidant, Astringent, cooling, astringent, aperient, anodyne, antianaemic, anabolic, antiemetic, carminative, digestive, stomachic, laxative, alterant, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antipyretic, tonic, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antidiabetic, carminative, and andtrichogenous.

Medicinal Use:

It is used in jaundice, dyspepsia, bacillary dysentery and as a gastrointestinal tonic.

It is antifungal and antimicrobial and useful in greyness of hair2. It strengthens and promotes the growth of hair.

It is useful in ulcerative Stomatitis, gastric ulcer, dyspepsia, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer and as immunostimulant.

Phylanthus Emblica has beneficial effects such as memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.
Clinical / experimental study:
Antioxidant:

Phylanthus emblica has pronounced adaptogenic properties, and has been shown to be active in vivo against free radical damage induced during stress.

Phylanthus emblica is stated as one of the highest naturally occurring sources of vitamin C, its antioxidant properties have also been attributed to the tannoid complexes (emblicanin A [37%], emblicanin B [33%], punigluconin [12%] and pedunculagin [14%].

Overall, the antioxidant effect of Amalaki is significantly greater than that of vitamin C alone.
Anti-inflammatory:

Overall, the antioxidant effect of Amalaki is significantly greater than that of vitamin C alone10.
Antimicrobial:

Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Phylanthus emblica have been found to be both antifungal and antimicrobial, without any indication of cellular toxicity.

Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against E. Coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. ozaenae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, and Serratia marcescens

Antiviral:

Methanol extract of the fruit of Phylanthus emblica (putranjivain A) has potent inhibitory action against human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase.

Anticancer:

Supplementation of Phylanthus emblica to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene, in much smaller doses than the carcingogen.

When an aqueous extract of Phylanthus emblica is administered prior to radiation treatment, it has been found to have a protective effect upon radiation induced chromosomal damage.

Cardiovascular:

Phylanthus emblica has lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic effects.

Phylanthus emblica was found to reduce serum cholesterol, aortic cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol in rabbits, but did not influence euglobulin clot lyses time, platelet adhesiveness or serum triglyceride levels.

Amalaki demonstrated significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels.

It has lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic effects and can reduce high serum cholesterol levels.

GI Track:

Phylanthus emblica significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in experimental animals.

In addition to its hepatoprotective activities, Phylanthus emblica also appears to be functional in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, reducing inflammation and the damage to acinar cells.
The study showed that Emblica officinalis has significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors.

Immune:

Phylanthus emblica has been found to enhance natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cytotoxicity in tumor bearing mice, enhancing lifespan to 35% beyond the control animals.

Phylanthus emblica has been shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxic effects of sodium arsenite when administered orally in experimental animals.

Amla resulted in an enhanced cell survival, decreased free radical production and higher antioxidant levels similar to that of control cells. 

Phylanthus Emblica enhance cell survival, increases phagocytosis and gamma-interferon (Γ-IFN) production. 

Phylanthus Emblica has beneficial effects such as memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.

Skin

A standard extract of Phyllanthus emblica was found to have a long lasting and broad spectrum antioxidant activity. Emblica helps protect the skin from the damaging effects of free radicals, non-radical and transition metal-induced oxidative stress. Emblica is suitable for use in anti-aging, sunscreen and general purpose skin care products.
A standardized extract of Phyllanthus Emblica was found to have a long/lasting and broad/spectrum antioxidant activity. The product has no pro/oxidation activity induced by iron and/or copper because of its iron and copper chelating ability. Emblica helps protect the skin from the damaging effects of free radicals, non/radicals and transition metal/induced oxidative stress. Emblica is suitable for use in anti/aging, sunscreen and general purpose skin care products.
Treatment of Dyspepsia

The therapeutic efficacy of Amalaki in cases of dyspepsia was evaluated and the results clearly indicate the efficacy of Emblica officinalis, in relieving the dyspeptic symptoms as well as in promoting ulcer healing.

1 Comment

Filed under Ayurveda, herbs

One response to “Amla (Phyllanthus emblica)

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