Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Haldi (Curcuma Longa)
Latin Name Curcuma longa, C. domestica
Sanskrit Name Haridraa, Priyaka, Haridruma, Kshanda, Gauri, Kaanchani, Krimighna
English Name Turmeric
Common Name Varavarnini, Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini, Naktaahvaa, Sharvari, Zard Chob, Manjal

 

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:2

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Laghu, Ruksha

Virya

Usna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Varnya, Kushthaghna, Raktaprasadana, Kandughna, Pandughna, Raktavardhaka, Rakastambhana, etc,

Phytochemistry:

The rhizomes gave curcuminoids, the mixture known as curcumin, consisting of atleast four phenolic diarylheptanoids, including curcumin and monodesmethoxycurcumin; volatile oil (3–5%), containing about 60% of turmerones which are sesquiterpene ketones, and bitter principles, sugars, starch, resin.

Pharmacological Actions:

It is anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, appetizer, haematic, hepatoprotective, blood-purifier, antioxidant, detoxifier and regenerator of liver tissue, antiasthmatic, anti-tumour, anticutaneous, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, stomachic and carminative.

Medicinal Use:

It is useful in inflammations, ulcers, wounds, skin diseases, pruritus, allergic conditions and discolouration of skin, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, constipation, anaemia, haemorrhages, strangury, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, urethrorhoea, fever and general debility.
With its anti microbial action it resists microorganisms to grow; it has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties.
It is used to remove liver obstructions.
It purifies blood by destroying the pathogenic organisms. A paste of turmeric is used to cure ringworm, obstinate itching, eczema and other parasitic skin diseases and in chicken pox and small pox.

Clinical / experimental study:

Curcumin related phenolics possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. The antioxidant activity of curcumin is comparable to standard antioxidants-vitamin C and E, BHA and BHT.

Skin conditions

Ischemia and tissue hypoxia in burn injuries or chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers, generate free radicals that give rise to further tissue necrosis. An in vitro study demonstrated protective effects of curcumin against hydrogen peroxide in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

Oral pretreatment with curcumin 100 mg/kg hastened wound healing in mice exposed to postoperative gamma-radiation. Enhancement of collagen synthesis and markers of wound healing were demonstrated. Histological assessment of wound biopsy specimens showed improved collagen deposition as well as increased fibroblast and vascular densities.

A combination of turmeric and Neem (Azadirachta indica) applied topically effectively eradicated scabies in 97% of 817 people treated for 3 to 15 days.

Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Essential oil was found to be most active and its activity was compared to standard antibiotics gentamycin, ampicillin, doxycycline and erythromycin in these strains. The clinical isolate of S. aureus showed more sensitivity towards essential oil fraction. The use of essential oil from turmeric as a potential antiseptic in prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections has been suggested.

Turmeric powder has healing effect on both aseptic and septic wounds in rats & rabbits.

Curcumin, isolated from turmeric, has been known to possess many pharmacologic properties. To further understand its therapeutic mechanisms on wound healing, the antioxidant effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase induced damage to cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were investigated. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay and quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release. Exposure of human keratinocytes to curcumin at 10 [mu]g/mL showed significant protective effect against hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to curcumin at 2.5 [mu]g/mL showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide. The findings indicate that curcumin indeed possessed powerful inhibition against hydrogen peroxide damage in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts1.
The wound-healing, antiinflammatory and antimutagenic activities of turmeric have been demonstrated convincingly.

Many of the pharmacologic actions of turmeric have been attributed to its antioxidant activity, primarily because of curcumin. In a study of 34 vegetables common in the Indian diet, turmeric had the highest antioxidant activity.

Topical application of curcumin inhibited chemically induced carcinogenesis on mouse skin.

Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Essential oil was found to be most active and its activity was compared to standard antibiotics gentamycin, ampicillin, doxycycline and erythromycin in these strains. The clinical isolate of S. aureus showed more sensitivity towards essential oil fraction. The use of essential oil from turmeric as a potential antiseptic in prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections has been suggested.
Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica and Rubia cordifolia shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis.

1 Comment

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One response to “Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

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