Neem – Azadirachta indica

Latin Name Azadirachta Indica
Sanskrit Name Nimba, Tiktaka, Arista, Picumarda
English Name Margosa tree
Common Name Limba, Limbado, Kohumba, Nimba, Bevu, Oilevevu, Kahibevu, Bevinama, Aryaveppu, Balantanimba, Bakayan, Kadunimb

 

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/ff/Neem_leaves_Neem_Leaves.jpg
Ayurvedic Properties and Action:

Rasa Tikta
Guna Ruksa
Virya Sita
Vipaka Katu
Karma Grahi, Vatala, Pittanasaka

Phytochemistry :

It contains volatile oil . The bark exudes a clean bright amber colored gum which is collected in small trees or fragments. It contains a bitter alkaloid named margosine in long white needles. Leaves contain a small bitter substance of same chemical character but much more soluble in water. Seeds contain 10-30% of a yellow bitter fixed oil which is extracted by boiling. The oil is deep yellow in color and contains free and volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids contain stearic and oleic acid with a small amount of lauric acid. The sap contains glucose, sucrose, gums and coloring matter, proteids and ashes, containing potassium, iron, aluminium, caslcium and carbon dioxide.
Pharmacological Actions:

It has antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, and hypoglycaemic (nimbidin) actions.
Medicinal Use:

It has antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral actions and useful in sores, measles, smallpox, head scald and cutaneous affections.
It has astringent, antiseptic and emollient properties, useful in skin affections.
Hypoglycaemic (nimbidin) actions of Neem used to reduce blood sugar.
Clinical / experimental study:

The water-soluble portion of alcoholic extract of leaves reduces blood sugar in glucose-fed and adrenalineinduced hyperglycaemic rats (but not in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats).

A. indica the next important ingredient shows its anti-diabetic action by stimulation the insulin secretion by β cells of islet of Langerhans of the pancreas in a manner similar to the sulfonylurea like chlorpropamide.

It has sedative1 and CNS depressant activities. It has nerve regeneration action.It has tranquilizing effect.

Neem oil obtained from the seed kernel of A. indica is employed for the preparation of various herbal formulations in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Neem oil shows significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which has been attributed to mahmoodin, a new limnoid, in Neem oil.

Nimbedine, another component of Neem oil, shows antiinflammatory activity and also possesses moderate antibacterial acclivity. The extract of Neem shows antibacterial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, MIC and MBC values (5 mg/ml) are the same for P. acnes while, for S. epidermidis, the MIC value is 5 mg/ml and MBC value is more than 5 mg/ml.

Neem bark also contains proton pump inhibition activity, which is more potent than ranitidine and similar to omeprazole in acid secretion inhibition activity.

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