Adusi (Adhatoda Vasika)

Adusi (Adhatoda Vasika) 
Latin Name
Adhatoda vasica, A. zeylanica, Justicia adhatoda
Sanskrit Name
Vrsa, Atarusa, Vasaka
English Name
Vasaka
Common Name
Titabahak, Bahak, Vachaka, Baksa, Ardusi, Aduss, Atarusha, Vasa, Atalotakam
Ayurvedic Properties and Action:
Rasa
Tikta, Kasaya
Guna
Laghu
Virya
Sita
Vipaka
Katu
Karma
Hrdya, Kaphapittahara, Raktasangrahika, Kasaghna.

Phytochemistry:
The chief quinazoline alkaloid vasicine is reported in all parts of the plant.
It also contains vasicinine and arachidic, behenic, cerotic, lignoceric, linoleic and oleic acids, ether alkaloids vasicol, adhatodine, vasicinone, vasicinol and vasicinolone.

Pharmacological Actions:
It is expectorant, bronchodilator, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic and febrifuge.
Vasicine is a bitter bronchodilator, respiratory stimulant and hypotensive.

Medicinal Use:
It is used in bronchial, asthmatic and pulmonary affections.
Have mucolytic, mucokinetics and is extensively used for treating cold, cough, whooping cough and chronic bronchitis, asthma and as mild expectorant.

Vasaka (Vasicine) has mucokinetics (Expectorant) and mucolytic properties.
It is used externally in inflammatory swelling, neuralgias, scabies and other skin complaints.

Clinical / experimental study:

Skin
An extract of the leaves showed significant antifungal activity against ringworm.

Bronchodilatory activity
An aqueous solution of vasicinone hydrochloride was found to potentiate the bronchodilatory activity of aminophylline, also that of soprenaline.
Vasicinone exhibited smoothmuscle-relaxant properties of airways.

Alkaloids present in the plant showed significant protection against allergin-induced bronchial obstruction. Adhatoda vasica reduced ovalbumin and PAF-induced allergic reaction. A fraction containing the minor alkaloid Vasicinol and about 20% Vasicine inhibited ovalbumin-induced allergic reaction by about 37% at a concentration of 5 gm.

Antitussive effect
The antitussive activity of Adhatoda vasica (AV) extract was evaluated in anaesthetized guinea pigs and rabbits and in unanaesthetized guinea pigs. AV was shown to have a good antitussive activity.

Intravenously, it was 1/20-1/40 as active as codeine on mechanically and electrically induced coughing in rabbits and guinea-pigs. After oral administration to the guinea-pig the antitussive activity of AV was similar to codeine against coughing induced by irritant aerosols.

Results from animal studies show that Adhatoda vasica extract considerable antitussive activity when administered orally and is comparable to codeine when cough is due to irritant stimuli. The antitussive activity may be due to the action of vasicinone and vasicinol, which have activity in the cerebral medulla.

Bronchodilator and Anti-Asthmatic activity
Clinical trials of drugs containing vasicine and vasicinone have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma.

According to a 2002 review, both Vasicine and vasicinone possess in vitro and in vivo bronchodilatory activity and inhibit allergen-induced bronchial obstruction in a manner comparable to that of sodium cromoglycate.

Antispasmodic
The essential oil from the leaves has been shown to exert antispasmodic action on guinea pig tracheal chain.

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